I would want to start this post first with a reminder that you can always check the front-end web development theme viewtopic.php?f=15&t=19
So if front-end reinforces the UI (User interface) of the website the back-end programming focuses on UX (User Experience) and gives us an opportunity to create more dynamic websites. One of the main goals of back-end programming is to connect the website to the databases, allow us to create forms (log ins, registration), and allow us to upload, remove, edit content from the website.
It is also worth to mention that some people are working both on the front-end and back-end web programming and this is called Full Stack programming.
Some popular programming languages for back-end programming are: Python, PHP, Java, C++, Node.js.
It is also worth to mention that the web browsers do not support those programming languages and this is why we need to create a localhost server in order to check the functionality of our code. One of the most popular servers are Apache and there is WAMP, LAMP and MAMP (W for windows, L for Linux and M for Mac OS), it needs to be installed and also MySQL should be already installed on your computer before you run the server.
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